Ancient Ephesus is mentioned in Hittite sources as the capital of a kingdom in Western Anatolia. By 1200 BC Ephesus is the leading city belonging to the confederation of Ionian colonies. Only one column of the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of Antiquity still stands at Ephesus. A great deal of artwork has been taken by the British from the site and can be seen in the British Museum.
At the beginning of the 5th century, when the Ionian cities rebelled against Persia, Ephesus quickly dissociated itself from the others, and thus escaped destruction. Ephesus remained under Persian rule until the arrival of Alexander the Great in 334 B.C.
In Roman times, Ephesus was known as the first and greatest metropolis of Asia boasting an impressive Library, a theater, the above mentioned Temple of Artemis, Temple of Hermes, Temple of Hadrian(pictured here), Temple of Domitian(formerly temple of Serapis).
The city had also many baths and an advanced aqueduct system.
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